While it's unlikely you'll need to directly interact with it, it's useful to know about the data store kubentes uses called etcd. Etcd is not a kubernetes specific technology, it's actually used by many other projects. According to the project site, etcd is:

"A strongly consistent, distributed key-value store that provides a reliable way to store data that needs to be accessed by a distributed system or cluster of machines. It gracefully handles leader elections during network partitions and can tolerate machine failure, even in the leader node."

At a high level, it's a version controlled key value store that can be interacted with using the etcdctl tool. The most basic example of creating a key/value pair is by running the command etcdctl put hello world.

This very basic example simply maps the key of hello to the value of world which can then be queried by running etcdctl get hello

If we write this output to json using etcdctl get --write-out=json hello | jq we can see that there is actually a little bit more going on under the hood. First, the key/value pair are base64 encoded. Second we can see that there is a create_revision and a mod_revision number. Notice how this output is very simliar to kubectl get <resource> -o json command.

By updating the vlaue stored in hello to hacker using etcdctl put hello hacker, we can see that the value has been updated after querying the etcd server with etcdctl get --write-out =json hello | jq. Interestingly, if we want to access the first value it stored with etcdctl get --rev 8 --write-outjson hello | jq, we can query etcd for the revision it was created at (in this case, 8) and it will give us our original world value.

Etcd utilizes the raft protocol to maintain state between nodes.